The Syllabus

• organising
– the process by which data is structured into a form appropriate for use by other information processes
• how different methods of organising affect processing, for example:
– letters of the alphabet represented as images rather than text
– numbers represented as text rather than numeric.
• the way in which the hardware used for collection organises data by digitising images, audio, video, numeric and text
• software for organisation
• for a given scenario, identify alternatives for data collection and choose the most appropriate one
• use a range of hardware collection devices to collect different data types
• describe the operation of a range of hardware collection devices
• make predictions about new and emerging trends in data collection based on past practices
• choose the most appropriate combination of hardware, software and/or non-computer tools to collect data from a given source
• use the Internet to locate data for a given scenario
• design forms that allow data to be accurately recorded and easily input into software applications
• select and use appropriate communication skills to conduct interviews and surveys so that data can be accurately collected
• identify existing data that can be collected for an information system for a given scenario
• recognise personal bias and explain its impact on data collection
• identify the privacy implications of particular situations and propose strategies to ensure they are respected
• choose the most appropriate format for a given set of data and identify and describe the most appropriate software and method to organise it

In this unit you will learn:

  • How collected data can be organised for other processing tasks.
  • see how the selected organising method can affect future processing option.

Data and Information.

Data that have been collected will probably not be ready to for processing analysis os display. Collected data must be organised into a set format before being used. The organising process performs the data formatting in the informtaion processing systems. A distinction is sometimes made between two different ways of organising data.

  • Data preparation - oganising data for processing, analysis, storing and retrieving, transmitting and recieving. Data data in this form are not usually user friendly.
  • Document preparation - organising data for displaying. This makes data more user friendly, but can make difficult or even impossible for the data to be used by other information processes.

Organising text data
As mentioned in chapter 3, text data can be collected in a variety of different ways. The text can organised into different formats such as pure ASCII or s fully formatted, word prodessed documents. text collected using OCR, for example, and loaded directly into a word processor will be organised by the word processor into its own preferred text format. Table 4.1 gives some examples of text formats.

Table 4.1

Doc (microsoft word document): this conatains additional data describing features such as page size, margin widths, fonts, line and paragraph formats. Its use will restict the processing of the collected text to microsoft word and realated products.

PDF (Adobe Acrobat potable Document Format): This conatains additional data describing page size, margin widths, line and paragraph formats, fonts, images and features such as thumbnails, bookmarks and links to other parts of the document and other documents. its use will restrict the processing of the collected text to adobe acrobat and related products.

HTML (HyperText Markup Language): Pure text with addtional data describing the web page layout. this format allows data to be placed directly on to the web.

RTF (Rich Text Format): This contains additional describing the layout of the text. Features such as line widths, paragrapg formats, characters styles and tables are saved. this text format can be read by a wide range of word and document editing software.

TXT ( pure Text) This Contains no formatting data except for standard end of line or pragraph breaks and can be read by a wide range of software applications.
Organising inage Text
because of the popularity of computer graphics, an enormous variety of data formats have been created for organising image data. These formats can be broadly classified into two types - bit maps and vector graphics.
Bit map Images.
Bit map imagescontain data that subscribe the colour or gray value of, every pixel in the image. the quantity of data needed to store this information for a single pixel depends on the size of the image PALETTE. Most modern personel computers use display palettes of 16.7 million colours but an image with a palette that large would use 3 bytes of data for every single pixel. in most cases only very high quality photographic images would need to use such a large palette. simpler images such as drawings and paintings, use much smaller palette
Vector images
in a vector image the data describes individual objects nt pixels. An object may be a line or shape each object is described bya unique set of features some of which amy include:

  • Position - measured from the Image origin.
  • Shape - one of many available predefined shapes e.g. circles polygons.
  • Key points - The position off vital points e.g. the end of lines.
  • line characteristics - weight (thickness) style e.g. solid or broken, colour.
  • object fill - colour and/or pattern used to fill a solid object.

Image Data Formats
some of the differences between the many ways of organising image data sure due to:

  • the use of colour tables and restricted colour palettes in some formats.

*providing various data compression techniques.

  • providing a transport colour or colours.
  • the use of vector image data.

A term that often appears with advanced image data format is alpha channel (sometimes referred to as alpha transparency). The RGB values (or channels) stored in a 24 bit image do not allow for information such as the level of transparency of each pixel - from solid colour (opaque) to fully transparent or invisible. The alpha channel provides an additional 8 bits of data about every pixel. A 24 bit image with an 8 bit alpha channel will actually be a 32 bit image. the alpha channel can be used to mask or block certain pixels from being altered.
Organising Numerical Data
Numerical data can be organised as text data to make the display process easier.
Numerical data into a spreadsheet format allows for display analysis and processing by the spreadsheet application.
Numerical data can be organised as text data using the any of the text formats. These formats allow a wide range of of software application to access the data word documents and web pages frequently cinatain numerical data. numerical data can also be organised into soecialised non-txt formats such as those used in spread sheet applications.
Organising Image Data
because of the popularity of computer graphics, an enormus variety of data formats have been created for organising image data these formats can be broadly classified into two types- bit map and vector graphics.
Organising Video And animation Data
Video data, like audio data are a sequence of signal measurment. in the case of video, the signal represents visual data - light intensity levels of colour since one second of video contains nush more data than one second of audio video data will take up more space and more complicated to organise some of the more popular organising formats data are AVI QuickTime Real Video and MPEG.
Data Dictionaries
A Data Dictionary describes and organises all the data used on an information processing system. Its also describes each data field in a database. Data dictionaries are usually oarganised as tables.
Data dictionaries are important tools in the design and maintinence of an information system. They describe the data used and produced by all the information processes. A data dictionary is also built by a database management software when a new database is created. Before the data can be added to a data base the data dictionary must be created.
Scial Issues
The very first web pages were text only. web browsers were originally key-board based text systems that displayed only white text on a black screen background. To use the webpage you needed to have allot of technical knowledge to set up the hardware and the software. Today, With almost nio technical knowledge we can watch a live video broadcasts and chat directly to our frinds through websites. Redundant data is a major problem in this subject. redundent data can lead to a customers recieving bills tht arent theres or arent the right ammount it can also slow down data base operations.
Pg 73-101 of imformation processing and technologies. peter were and David grover.